Vasectomy is a common urological procedure that results in permanent birth control. Over 520,000 are performed a year in the U.S. It is an outpatient procedure that is done in the clinic/office. It takes about half an hour. A piece of the vas is removed and either clips or ties are applied. Some urologists turn the vas back or place the two ends in different levels. Ice pack, rest and pain medication are recommended after the surgery. Protected intercourse is needed until no sperm in the semen is confirmed. This is checked after a certain number of ejaculations (e.g. 15-20) or based on timeframe (6 weeks or more after vasectomy). The patient is NOT CLEARED FOR UNPROTECTED INTERCOURSE until the follow-up semen analysis shows no sperm. Certain questions often asked are:

Will a man have normal erections after vasectomy?
Yes, any affect on erections may be psychological–there are no changes hormonally that cause a problem. Some residual discomfort may play a role.

Will a man still produce fluid?
Yes, the main fluid a man produces is “down stream” from the vasectomy.

Will a man still reach climax?

Will a man still have normal libido (sex drive)?
Yes. Any problems may be psychological. If he still has pain, that may lead to less desire.

Can a vasectomy increase the chance of testicular cancer?
No. There is no connection between the two. Also there is no connection with prostate cancer or any other cancers.

Are there any diseases that a vasectomy can lead to?
No. There have been some associations made that a vasectomy can lead to an increased risk of heart disease and Alzheimer’s. These have not been supported by adequate studies.

Can a vasectomy reverse itself spontaneously?

This is called “recanalization” and, unfortunately, the answer is yes, but rarely. The statistics range from a 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 10,000 chance. The reason for this is that there is a sort of “honeycombing effect.” This, however, may be very much related to the technique of vasectomy performed and to the man being compliant with the instructions to get his semen checked to make sure there are no sperm. Under 50% of men get checked to make sure they have no sperm. It is recommended the analysis not be performed until at least 15-20 ejaculations have occurred. Some doctors recommend a timeline, e.g., analysis after 6 weeks. The exact timeline is not completely clear.

Can a vasectomy be reversed deliberately?

Yes. Of the 520,000 or more men who have a vasectomy in the U.S. per year, approximately 6% feel that they have made a mistake or a change in their life situation has occurred causing them to consider reversing this permanent means of contraception. It is important to also know that if a man is under 30 years of age, he has a 12-times higher chance of wanting a reversal. See male infertility section.

What is the no scalpel vasectomy?
This isn’t quite what everyone thinks. No scalpel does not mean “no pain.” No scalpel unfortunately doesn’t mean it is any less anxiety-provoking, nor any less of a procedure. In place of a scalpel is an instrument that stretches the skin to open it up, which still requires local anesthetic. The advantage is most times no stitch in the skin is required and the hole is small. Recovery may be better, but no real difference has been noted.

As a patient, some time should be taken thinking about the options. It is an important milestone so it is important to get it right the first time. If a patient is unsure, vasectomy may not be the right option.